Vertical and/or Short Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) is a term used to describe aircraft that are able to take-off or land vertically or on short runways. Most were experiments or outright failures from the 1950s to 1970s. Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) describes craft which do not require short runways. Generally, a V/STOL aircraft needs to be able to hover; helicopters are not typically considered under the V/STOL classification.
Below are documents pertaining to different aircraft, designs and concepts obtained under the Freedom of Information Act:
V/STOL Concepts and Developed Aircraft. Volume 1. A Historical Report (1940-1986) [454 Pages, 26.41mb]